Sterilizing Rye Grain for Spawn in a Pressure Cooker

Ingredients:

90 g rye grain per 1 pint of desired spawn

Gram scale or measuring cups and spoons

Mixing bucket

Mixing spoon or paddle

Thermometer

gypsum powder

Large cooking pot

Colander, muslin bags or cheese cloth

Mason jars with filtered lids and rings or filtered grain bags

Aluminum foil

White vinegar (optional)

Pressure cooker

Laminar flow hood (optional)

Directions:

 

Procedure

Principle

1.

Measure the desired amount of grain.

Conversions:

90 g dry grain per pint jar

½ cup dry grain = 90 g

As a general rule of thumb, rye grain will double in volume and mass after the soak and boil.

2.

Rinse the grain in cold water or until the water is pouring off mostly clear.

Grain often has dust and debris in it, washing it removes unwanted material.

3.

Place grains in the bucket and add hot (no more than 170F) water, filling about an inch (~2.5 cm) above top of grain.

Some of this water will be absorbed, it isn’t going to hurt to have more than an inch above the grain.

4.

Add 2% (by weight of dry grain) gypsum powder to the bucket and mix.

 

 

Conversion:

1 teaspoon of gypsum powder weighs about 3.4 g.

Gypsum powder helps establish a more basic pH of the grain spawn and helps prevent grains from sticking to each other.

5.

Let the grains soak for 12 -24 hours. 

 

Soaking allows the shell of the grain to soften and absorb more water later, when boiling.  Soaking also provides the perfect environment for mesophilic bacteria to thrive and blossom, only to be subsequently killed off during the boil.

6.

Dump the grain and water into the cooking pot (no need to change out water) Add more water if necessary to raise the water level 1 inch (~2.5 cm) above the top of the grain.

Changing out the water will wash off the gypsum powder and affect pH.

7.

Turn the stove to medium-high and bring to a gentle boil, then reduce heat and simmer for 10 minutes.  Stir once or twice to prevent grain from sticking to the bottom.

Boiling helps the grains absorb water, and starts the process of killing off some contamination prior to drying and sterilization.

8.

Drain the grains into the colander and shake to drain. If you don’t have a colander, pour grains into a muslin bag or cheese cloth and hang to drain.  If using a muslin bag or cheese cloth, use a spatula or large spoon to gently move grain around from the outside of the bag.  Allow the grain to drain for approximately 30 minutes.

Stops the soaking process and prevents grain from expanding and breaking.

9.

Spread the grain out on a pan or solid surface and allow to air dry for about an hour.  Grains are ready when dry on the outside.

While the grains are dry on the outside, the insides have absorbed the perfect amount of water to support mycelium colonization later on.

10.

Add dried grains to your vented mason jars or filter bag.  For mason jars, fill to about ½ to ¾ full.  For grain bags, fill about 5 inches (13 cm) of the bag. 

Don’t overfill on this step.  You’ll need space in the jar to allow for shaking or mixing later on during the colonization process.

11.

Install filtered jar lids and cover with tinfoil, or fold the bag down with the filter inside the folds.

 

Filtered lids allow for gas exchange later on during colonization, but prevents contamination from entering the grain spawn.

Aluminum foil prevents the grain from absorbing more water during the sterilization procedure.

12.

Place a trivet in the bottom of the pressure cooker.

Jars can break if directly on the bottom of the pressure cooker, and bags can melt.

13.

Load jars or bags into the pressure cooker. 

 

14.

Add water to just below the bottom of the jars or bags. 

If the water level is too high, it could cause the bags to melt.  If using jars, this is not as important.

15.

(Optional) If using jars, add two tablespoons of white vinegar to the water in the pressure.

Vinegar helps prevent water staining of the jars.

16.

If using bags, place a weight on top of the bags.

This prevents the bags from swelling during sterilization and blocking the vent/safety valve and pressure gauge ports on the pressure cooker lid.

17.

Install the pressure cooker lid and rocker weight.

The rocker weight will allow the pressure cooker to reach 15 psig.

18.

Turn heat source on high until pressure reaches about 13 PSIG, then lower the heat source temperature to maintain 15 PSIG. Maintain 15 PISG for at least 90 min, starting your timer when the pressure reaches 15 PSIG. 

Turing the heat down before reaching full pressure minimizes water and energy loss through the vent.

19.

Place a clean towel on top of the pressure cooker and allow the pressure cooker to cool on it’s own, do not attempt to force cool the cooker.

 

The towel will filter some contamination from entering the pressure cooker while cooling.

 Force cooling the pressure cooker can cause damage to the pressure cooker or crack jars.

20.

(Optional) Allow the pressure cooker to cool in front of a laminar flow hood.

This will virtually guarantee that contamination does not enter the pressure cooker while cooling down.

21.

Remove the jars or bags from the pressure cooker and proceed to inoculation.